Primary documents in Indigenous affairs, history, land and higher education:
indigenous Studies in Australia has relied largely on second- and third-hand sources, on hearsay, opinion and oral history rather than on evidence. This site provides a store of primary data - mainly from South Australia but with records from all states going back to the 1830s and up to the 1960s.
As well, on the 'Higher Education Page', you can find an up-to-date and comprehensive database of statistics on indigenous higher education nation-wide, and key articles on the great success story: Indigenous higher education and its impacts.
Just go to the drop-down bar at the top of the page: ' Introduction .... Protector's letters &c. .... More ..... '
Voices from the Past: Extracts from the Annual Reports of the South Australian Chief Protectors of Aborigines, 1837 Onwards
Alistair Crooks and Joe Lane
With a foreword by Tony Thomas
Available in Paperback and Hardcover, and on-line.
Attributions: where did we get all this stuff from ?
* All S.A. government documents (protector's letters; protector's reports; royal commissions, etc.) were accessed at the S.A. State records through their wonderful staff;
* mission data (Pt. McLeay, Poonindie, Manunka, etc.) and other private material were accessed at the State Library of SA;
* inter-state data was accessed through the National Archives, and via Google, etc. It's amazing what you can get on Google;
* Higher Education data from the web-site of the federal Department of Education and Training.
TODAY'S HIGHLIGHT ARTICLE ! Ten years ago, Maria Lane wrote this article on where she thought Indigenous affairs were heading. Did she get it right ?
Note on down-loading: Some of these files are very large, up to 1000 pages, so give them time to down-load.
04.04.17 [Re-posted]: "History of the United Aborigines Mission", with details of the early days of Missions at Gerard, Oodnadatta, Finniss Springs, Nepabunna, etc.
[05.02.17]: Journals of Watkin Tench, Sydney, 1788-1791 - one of the earliest accounts of interactions around Sydney - on 'New South Wales Records' page.
[9.10.16] Letters of Rev. Heinrich Meyer, missionary at Encounter Bay, South Australia throughout the 1840s, indexed, with a 1844 Report to the Governor on Ramindjeri/Ngarrindjeri customs and language - on the 'Other S.A. Missions' Page.
: [30.09.16] An up-dated Basic Indigenous Higher Education Database - growth of 6-8 % p.a., year after year !
At least forty thousand (maybe forty four thousand) Indigenous graduates!
Somebody's doing something right.
A more detailed Database 2015 is on the 'Higher Education Page'.
Pages available: (for details of each page, see below this list)
* Protector's correspondence page [s.a.]
* ration depots page [s.a.]
* protector's reports page [s.a.]
* Pt McLeay and Rev. George Taplin page [s.a.]
* Aborigines' Friends' Association page [s.a.]
* poonindie page [s.a.]
* other missions page [s.a.]
* royal commissions and key conferences page
* early documents page [s.a.]
* inter-state records pages
* higher Education page
* twenty-first century page
* Land matters page.
protector's correspondence page:
* letters from THE S.A. PROTECTOR OF ABORIGINES, FROM 1837 TO 1913, A TOTAL OF ABOUT EIGHT AND A HALF THOUSAND LETTERS, OVER 2,500 PAGES, IN EIGHT VOLUMES, each volume indexed;
* a register of letters IN to the protector, 1866-1899, thirteen and a half thousand of them;
* Correspondence, 1856-1861, Crown lands department - in progress;
* Report of John walker, 1863;
* Summary paper: "Land, boats and Guns".;
* observations on the protector's letters: '"re-thinking Aboriginal history".
* A combined INDEX OF ALL ABORIGINAL PEOPLE NAMED:
- IN THE PROTECTOR'S CORRESPONDENCE out, 1840-1912,
- from the register of letters in, 1866-1901,
- in taplin's journal,
- in the point Macleay letter-books, 1880-1899,
- at the 1860 Select Committee,
- at the 1913-1916 Royal Commission,
- in the Poonindie files, and
- in the depot ledgers and stores accounts, 1909-1941.
More than seventy pages of names. Invaluable for family searches !
Ration depot maps page:
* A spread-sheet of all depots, year by year, location and issuers, up-dated to 1913.
* maps of the dozens of ration depots around the state, 1840-1913, from the protector's letters;
* Depot Ledgers and stores account book, 1909 - 1941;
* An Index of all Aboriginal people mentioned in the depot ledgers, 1909-1941;
* Point McLeay annual accounts, income and expenditure, 1932-49;
* Chief Storekeeper: issues of flour to depots, 1935-1942;
* Issues of Rations at Wellington, 1935-1944;
* Issues of flour to depots and missions, 1935-1942;
Protector's Quarterly and annual reports page:
* quarterly and half-yearly reports, 1839-1868.
* ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE PROTECTOR, BETWEEN 1867 AND 1949, all contributed by Alistair Crooks;
* Early court records - Executions, floggings and commutations of aboriginal prisoners.
Pt McLeay [Raukkan] and George taplin page:
* THE TWENTY-YEAR JOURNAL OF GEORGE TAPLIN (1831-1879), AN AMAZING MAN, WHO SET UP POINT MCLEAY MISSION ON LAKE ALEXANDRINA, IN 1859;
* LETTER-BOOKS OF THE VARIOUS SUPERINTENDENTS OF POINT MCLEAY MISSION, 1884-1899;
* new - "The Narrinyeri" (1874) by George Taplin;
* Point McLeay annual accounts, income and expenditure, 1932-49.
*a combined index of Taplin's Journal and the letter-book, covering 1859 to 1899;
* collection of references to the Wilkins family;
- raukkan family trees, roughly up to 1912.
Aborigines' Friends' Association (AFA) page:
* AnnuAL REPORTS AND VARIOUS PAPERS OF THE ABORIGINES' FRIENDS' ASSOCIATION (S.A.), 1880-1940;
* A register of correspondence to and from the poonindie Mission near Port Lincoln, 1856-1889;
* Hitchins' 1859 detailed report on Poonindie - and back-story;
* An Index of Aboriginal people mentioned in the Poonindie correspondence, 1854-1889;
* CLAMOR SCHURMANN'S 'I'D RATHER DIG POTATOES', an ACCOUNt (1838-1850) OF WORKING IN THE FIRST ABORIGINAL SCHOOLs IN S.A., IN
ADELAIDE AND PORT LINCOLN, AND LEARNING, interpreting, AND TEACHING IN, THE LOCAL LANGUAGES, as missionaries usually did;
other mission stations page: -
- A history of the United aborigines' Mission, which set up many missions around the state, from Ooldea in the west to swan reach and gerard on the murray, and Colebrook home at quorn, nepabunna and Finniss springs in the north.
- a brief account of manunka mission, 1900-1912, on the murray near forster.
- Nineteenth century correspondence with respect to Point Pierce (Pearce).
Royal commissions and key conferences page:-
* S.A. Royal commissions:
* THE FULL transcripts and REPORTS OF
- THE SELECT COMMITTEE ON THE ABORIGINES, 1860,
- THE ROYAL COMMISSION OF THE ABORIGINES, 1899,
- THE ROYAL COMMISSION OF THE ABORIGINES, 1913-1916,
* the advisory council of aborigines (1918 - 1940) - extracts from the minutes of its meetings.
* key national conferences:
- Transcript of the 1929 Missionaries' conference, Sydney;
- papers of the 1937 Conference on Aboriginal policy (transcribed by Alistair crooks);
- records of the 1951 conference, canberra;
- reports and transcript of national conference, Canberra, 1961.
- record of papers for the 1963 'native welfare' conference, darwin.
- record of papers for the 1965 'native welfare' conference, adelaide.
- record of papers for the aboriginal welfare conference, Perth, 1967 - just after the 1967 Referendum (4 volumes).
- Transcript of first conference of aboriginal affairs council (1968):
- access to Planit-aerth web-site - all sorts of key conference papers.
early documents page:
* writings of Governor Grey, Moorhouse, Thomas Bull and E. J. Eyre;
* case studies on the "Maria" (1840), and the trial of Constable Willshire (1891) , generously provided by Alistair crooks;
* Mrs Christina smith's book on the "Booandik";
* Detailed paper by Prof. stirling (1911) on mass graves found at swanport [also provided by Alistair crooks];
* papers by daisy bates (1907) and A. R. Radcliffe-brown (1918);
* 1921 essay by Kathleen hassell.
* Reports of first Protectors, Bromley and Wyatt.
* 1892 Report of sub-protector besley at port augusta, and his obituary;
* The Case of Henry Baird;
* Police Correspondence, 1866;
* Payment for Aboriginal witnesses, 1890s;
* Extracts from murder Inquest, Chamber's Bay, 1864-1866.
inter-state records pages [see drop-down bar above, right-hand corner]:
* WESTERN AUSTRALIA:
- the roth royal commission 1905 - report, evidence and index;
- THE MOSELEY COMMISSION evidence and REPORT, 1935;
- paper by a. o. Neville (1938); and a 1958 Report of W.A. commissioner Gale on 'Native matters';
* Plug for 'A Journey Travelled' by Murray Arnold (2015), a brilliant and detailed account of relations in the Albany (WA)
area - highly recommended';
* Excerpts from A. O. Neville's 'Australia's coloured minority' - something to get passionate about !
* Report and Transcript of the Wood Commission into the Forrest River Massacres (1927).
- documents and analyses FROM QUEENSLAND;
- transcripts of three select Committee hearings - in 1857, 1858 and 1861, on the Native Police in Queensland.
- Queensland card index, 1931-1941 , with brief analysis;
- account by archibald Meston in queensland of cape york investigation (1896);
- THE FIFTY ONE ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE VICTORIAN PROTECTION BOARD, 1861-1925,
- the 1877 Victorian Royal Commission;
- paper on employment of female teachers in Victorian Mission schools, 1880s;
* new south wales:
- evidence at the 1882 royal commission;
- Report of Inquiry into Maloga and Warangesda Missions, N.S.W., 1882;
- data from 181 sites across the state (1882) [n.s.w.];
- Journals of Watkin tench, 1788-1791.
* northern territory:
- the 1928-1929 Bleakley Report on conditions;
* national data.
- access to HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS STATE BY STATE: REPORTS, ROYAL COMMISSIONS, &C, FROM THE INSTITUTE OF ABORIGINAL AND
TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER STUDIES, A VAST RANGE OF INCREDIBLY VALUABLE FIRST SOURCES.
Indigenous Higher Education page:
- Database of university commencements, enrolments and graduations, etc., up to 2014:
- currently record numbers in all three:
- nearly seven thousand commencements;
- more than fifteen thousand enrolments;
- two thousand graduates in 2014;
- total graduate numbers now around thirty eight thousand, one in every eight adults.
- Fifty thousand graduates by 2020 - what impact will that have ?
* PAPERS ON INDIGENOUS HIGHER EDUCATION - especially on indigenous student support - by maria lane;
* summary article on Indigenous performance and success in tertiary education, and implications for
Aboriginal society and social change;
* articles, and blog-sites concerning Indigenous higher education.
TWENTY-FIRST CeNTURY page:
* KEY ARTICLES IN S.A. INDIGENOUS HISTORY AND POLICY:
* Some of the best contemporary research and articles by Robert Foster, Philip Jones, Peter Sutton and anne Scrimgeour.
* brilliant article by Dr. Robert Foster (1998) on co-existence of Traditional land-use and pastoralists' land-use.
* Forrest Review URL.
* "Indigenous population growth: have we had it all wrong ?" Analysis of Census data since 1971.
Indigenous Research page:
* access to Paper by lester Rigney on Indigenist research;
* draft of Maria lane' [rigney]'s massive "History of Ngarrindjeri Education, 1800-2000".
land matters page:
: 'the famous 'letters patent, 1837'.
: URLs and Articles on Australian Indigenous land use and native title;
: Extracts on land ownership in the south Pacific, Cook Islands and new Zealand;
: and on colonial land policy, mainly in Africa;
: articles on land use and ownership in india;
: native American land use and ownership.
This web-site is dedicated to the memory of Maria Rigney (1949-2008).